Wednesday, December 21, 2005

Literature Cited

Neurobiology : by Gordon M. Shepherd
Matix : II & III : by Valdamer Valerian
Raymond Strano, Director of the Higgins Center for Consciousness Research.
masahiro kahata, JAN 2003

Personality and the Frontal Lobed

The role of the frontal lobe in reading out internal representation of stored information is only part of a larger role involving, in humans, the entire personality of an individual. Currently, there is considerable interest in the roles of specific neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, especially dopamine. A variety of neuropharmacological manipulations have documented the antipsychotic effects of neuroleptic drugs on dopaminergic systems, including the prefrontal cortex. These studies support the belief that psychotic behavior is due to malfunctioning of specific brain circuits, and the hope that normal function can be restored by drugs acting on the synapses of these circuits.

Left and Right brain hemispheres

The first evidence that the hemispheres are different came from the French neurologist Paul Broca. In 1863, his words "We speak with left hemisphere" based on his patient with the inability to speak (aphasia) who turned out to have a tumor in the left frontal lobe. This work thus clearly established that the left hemisphere is "dominant" for a specific function, speech.
Until the 1950s, this stood as an isolated exception to what appeared to be the general equivalence of the two hemispheres in all their other function, sensory and motor.
Sperry the Nobel Prize in 1981, led to our present concept of the laterality of higher functions in the human brain.
The left hemisphere is dominant for control of speech, language, complex voluntary movement, reading, writing, and arithmetic calculations.
The right hemisphere is specialized for mainly nonlinguistic functions: complex pattern recognition vision, audition, and the tactile senses; the sense of space, spatial shapes, and direction in space; the sense of intuition.

Stage of Sleep for human

Awake : Low Voltage, Random, Fast
REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep (D Sleep, desynchronous) : Low voltage, Random, Fast
Drowsy : 8 to 12 Hz, Alpha waves
Stage 1 : 3 to 7 Hz, Theta waves
Stage 2 : 12 to 14 Hz, Sleep Spindles and K Complexes
Delta Sleep (S Sleep, synchronous or slow-wave), 0.5 to 2 Hz, High voltage, Delta waves

Relative coherence

Calibrate coherence in amplitude relatively over time. This process eliminate left & right difference of sampling, electrode and skin conducting, brain tissue, etc.


To see brain wave phase synchrony between left and right brain hemispheres. 1.0 mean 100% and 0 degree phase difference. 0.0 mean 0% and 90 degree phase difference.
A shift in brain frequency involving the presence of EEG synch between hemispheres precedes or accompanies non ordinary states of consciousness associated with meditation or trance channeling experience. when an individual shifts focus of attention, the entire frequency pattern of the brain shifts to different frequencies. This shift is of interest when it involves synch between hemispheres. The abilities to focus attention and to achieve flashes of insight have been created with increased phase synchrony between hemispheres.

Beta rhythm range from 12 Hz to 30Hz.

Low Beta: 12..15Hz (SMR), Mid Beta: 16Hz..22Hz, High Beta: 23..30Hz
Which is the range of normal waking consciousness.
Sterman named the frequency sensorimotor rhythm a rhythmic signal peaking in the range of 12 to 15 Hz that from a specific part of the brain, the sensorimotor cortex, and so it is called SMR.

The amplitude of the beta waves is generally less than 20 micro V.
Increasing the energy while lengthening the wavelength of the brain wavers can act as both a magnifying lens and an amplifier, which causes a narrowing of focus on beta waves. Narrow frequency band of continuously Beta peaks mean more focussing than wide frequency band of Beta peaks. High amplitude mean more high focussing.

Alpha rhythm range from 8 Hz to 12 Hz.

The normal basic rhythm for a relaxed person with the eyes closed. the majority of normal adults can produce the Alpha rhythm, which is a relaxed but awake state.

Theta rhythm range from 4 Hz to 8 Hz.

It's called the hypnogogic state and is a kind of consciousness twilight that occurs between being deeply relaxed and sleeping.
they appear to be prominent in the EEGs of normal children.

Delta rhythm range from 1 Hz to 4 Hz.

Delta rhythm range from 1 Hz to 4 Hz.
During deep sleep, anesthesia, and are also present during various meditative states involving will ful conscious focus of attention in the absence of other sensory stimuli and some comas.

The frequencies

The frequencies are clumped into categories that denote their characteristics.
A Hz (hertz) is the number of cycles per second; the higher the hertz, the faster the brain wave.


Consciousness can only be comprehended if you see it in terms of the environment in which it is embedded.
The ratio of the orbital period of Mars to that of Mercury comes out to 7.8 which is almost exactlythe Schumann resonance fundamental of 7.83 cycles per second.
Theinner coherence bands of electro encephalic activity (EEG) has theirouter doppelganger in the coherence bands of the earth-ionospherewave-guide; the so-called Schumann resonances.

The Schumann resonances as standing waves of potential created by thenatural radio wave transmitters called lightning bolts are not muchdifferent from the micro voltage pulses of potential measured fromhuman skull called EEG or the micro voltage pulses from the heartcalled EKG. The Schumann fundamental marks the boundary betweenconscious and subconscious selves.

Simply put, when EEG activity goes below 7.83 cycles per second peoplefall asleep or go into trance. If EEG activity goes above 7.83 cyclesper second they wake up or come out of trance. To put it yet anotherway the Schumann fundamental marks the point where attention switchesfrom external awareness to internal awareness.

The fundamental resonant frequency of the earth-ionosphere wave-guideis the fundamental resonant frequency of the human brain's EEGactivity!


On the left is the golden series and on the right the average orbital periods of the planets of the solarsystem.
Phi to the minus 3 power = .236 Mercury's period = .24085 Tropical earth years
Phi to the minus 1 power = 0.6i8 Venus's period = 0.61521 Tropical earth years
Phi to the zero power = 1.000 Earth' s period = 1.00004 Tropical earth years
Phi to the 1 power = 1.618 Mars' period = 1.88089 Tropical earth years
Phi to the 5 power = 11.090 Jupiter's period = 11.86223 Tropical earth years
Phi to the 7 power = 29.034 Saturn's period = 29.4577 Tropical earth years

The resonant frequency of the earth ionosphere

The resonant frequency of the earth ionosphere cavity is about 7.5 Hz and the micro-motion of the body is from 6.8 to 7.5 Hz.
This suggests a tuned resonant system. In deep meditation, a human being and the planet starts resonating and transferring energy at the very long wavelength of 40,000 km, the perimeter of the planet Nature finds it more economical in terms of energy to have periodic events that are close enough in frequency to occur in phase or in step with each other.


The human brain is estimated to be able to store information in the quantity between 1 X 10 ^11 (one hundred trillion) and 2.8 X 10 ^20 (280 quintillion) bits of information, by about 10 trillion neurons.
Those neurons information network makes electric current flow in the cortex where synchronous interactions yield oscillations in the frequency band from 1 Hz to 40 Hz.
these frequency oscillations a similar to the geo-electrical Schulman Waves generated in the ionosphere, to which all organism have been exposed throughout their period of evolution.


Human brain normally operates within a range from 1 to about 40 Hz. ( 0.16 Hz to 35 Hz in -6 dB : standard EEG amplifier filter specification )

for the purpose of EEG (electroencephalogram) analysis and clinical description, the frequency band has been divided into a number of so-called rhythm.

Richard Caton of England showed as early as 1875 that waves of electrical activity can be record from the surface of the brains of animals, but this finding lay unnoticed until the work of Hans Berger, of Germany, in the 1920s.

Berger was a psychiatrist, and also served as Rector of the University of Jena.

His main research interest was determining what he called the physical basis of psychic function.

Berger's report in 1929 that electrical waves could be recorded from the scalp, subject was his young son.

These early studies established that the dominant rhythm in the resting subject is 8-13 Hz, and is most prominent when the recording leads are over the occipital lobe of the brain (where the primary visual cortex is located).

This is called Berger rhythms, now called it Alpha rhythm.